Cryptanalysis of Grain.
C. Berbain, H. Gilbert, and A. Maximov.

Grain [11] is a lightweight stream cipher proposed by M. Hell, T. Johansson, and W. Meier to the eSTREAM call for stream cipher proposals of the European project ECRYPT [5]. Its 160-bit internal state is divided into a LFSR and an NFSR of length 80 bits each. A filtering boolean function is used to derive each keystream bit from the internal state. By combining linear approximations of the feedback function of the NFSR and of the filtering function, it is possible to derive linear approximation equations involving the keystream and the LFSR initial state. We present a key recovery attack against Grain which requires 243 computations and 238 keystream bits to determine the 80-bit key.